Like all light-colored leopards, an adult black panther is solitary. Each of them lives by itself in a territory also known as the home range. A female's home range is usually smaller than that of a male. The size of a black panther's territory is from 4 to 12 square miles (10 to 31 square kilometers).
A male black panther usually occupies a large well-defined territory, which overlaps with those of females but is not shared with other males. Female black panthers often share part or even their entire home ranges with other females. That is because young female black panthers often share part of home ranges with their mothers after they grow up and become fully independent.
Black panthers maintain the rights to their territories primarily by patrolling and scent marking. Scent marking, in the form of urine or feces, is deposited along commonly used travel routes. Black panthers also use scratches or vocalizations to show their presence. Usually, the scent marking and signals are enough to keep black panther intruders out. Sometimes, though, a black panther, especially a young adult black panther who is trying to establish a new territory for itself, may wander into another black panther's territory. Black panthers defend their home ranges viciously by fierce fighting.