Although black panthers are solitary and stealthy, they still leave their traces or signs behind them. Here are some common signs:
Tracks - footprints
Scat - usually contains hair or bone fragments of prey
Scrapes - piles of soil, leaves, or pine needles with urine or feces on top
Scratches - scratches on logs or trees
To claim the ownership of a territory or home range, a black panther spends much if its time patrolling the boundaries of its home range, spraying logs and trees with smelly urine. This is called scent marking. A black panther mainly uses scent marking, scrapes, and scratches to mark its territory and to alert other leopards to its presence.
Black panthers also use sign language to communicate with one another. When they move through thick underbrush, a mother black panther holds her long tail straight up to help cubs follow along without getting lost. Black panthers also use the ways they flick their ears to send different messages.
Black panthers also communicate with another through vocalizations. Black panther cubs and mothers keep track of one another with whistles. Females black panthers signal their readiness to mate by a yowling or sawing sound. A male roars to let other males know they have entered its territory.