The Black Panther Party was an African-American organization, which was active within the United States in the late 1960s and into 1970s. It was originally called Black Panther Party for Self-Defense when it was founded in Oakland, California, in October of 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale.
The Black Panther Party was founded on the principles of the Ten-Point Program. While firmly grounded in black nationalism and begun as an organization that accepted African-American membership exclusively, the Black Panthers ultimately condemned black nationalism as "black racism", and became less focused on membership exclusivity and more on socialism. The group ran medical clinics and provided free breakfast to school children in mainly black communities at its peak time.
The Black Panthers practiced militant self-defense in black communities against the U.S. government. This practice caused direct conflict with government law enforcement agencies, especially the FBI and police. FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover described the Black Panthers as "the greatest threat to the internal security of the United States” and ordered FBI to employ various “hard-hitting” counter-intelligence measures to crack down on the Black Panthers.
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