Typically, female leopards reach sexual maturity around two years of age. They usually give birth to their first litter when they are about two-and-a-half years old. Males are capable of mating at about two years old. Because of competition from older and stronger males, however, young males usually have to wait for their chance to mate until three to four years of age.
Adult leopards live alone for most of time. Male and female leopards get together only to mate; they avoid each other as much as possible outside mating season. Mating pairs seldom stay together for more than a few days. When a female leopard is ready for mating, she makes sawing noises to attract a male partner. She also leaves scent marking for males to follow. Fights can happen between males during the mating season. As soon as mating is over, the male cat goes his own way. The male will take no part in raising the cubs.
Mating can take place at any time of the year. The gestation period is about 90 to 105 days. The mother leopard finds a secure birth den in a cave, thicket, rock pile, or hollow tree before delivery.